Do you know the 4 Major Vital Signs?
Feb 7, 2019
The 4 Major Vital SignsHowever, the vital signs that are used for both emergencies and routine visits do not change. There are 4 major vital signs: blood temperature, blood pressure, pulse (heart rate) and breathing rate (respiratory rate). These are sometimes referred to as BT, BP, HR, and RR. Depending on the clinical setting, a "fifth" or "sixth" vital sign may be used. Vital signs are recorded using the LOINC internationally accepted standard coding system.
Blood TemperatureThe normal healthy adult's normal body temperature can range from 97.8 degrees F(36.5 Degrees C) to 99 Degrees Fahrenheit (37.2 degrees Celsius). But the average temperature is considered 98.6 degrees F. The normal body temperature varies depending on gender, recent activity, food consumption, and time of day. In women, the stage of the menstrual cycle can also be a factor. A person's temperature can be taken either orally, rectally, axillary, by ear or by the skin. Your body temperature can either have a fever (high temp) or hypothermia (low temp). A fever is defined as your body temperature rising above one degree or more over the normal temp of 98.6, whereas hypothermia is when the body temperature drops below 95 degrees F.
Blood PressureBlood pressure is a measurement of the force exerted on the walls of the blood vessels associated with the contraction and relaxation phases of the heart. It is expressed in a ratio of millimeters of mercury during the contraction phase (systolic) over the resting phase (diastolic) of the heart. The higher number, systolic pressure, refers to the pressure inside the artery when heart contracts and pumps blood, while the lower number, diastolic pressure, is the pressure inside the artery when the heart is at rest and filling with blood. Blood pressure is split into 4 categories: normal, elevated, stage 1 or stage 2 high blood pressure
- Normal blood pressure is systolic of less than 120 and a diastolic of less than 80 (120/80)
- Elevated blood pressure is systolic of 120-129 and diastolic less than 80
- Stage 1 high blood pressure is systolic 130-39 or diastolic between 80-89
- Stage 2 high blood pressure is when systolic is 140+ or diastolic is 90+